## Course List

Students are advised to begin their study of a field with 400-level courses unless their preparation in that field has been very good. M.A.T. students in mathematics, or M.A., M.S., or Ph.D. students in other departments, may receive graduate credit for any 400-level course. Candidates for the M.A. or Ph.D. in mathematics should note that some 400-level courses do not satisfy certain degree requirements (see footnotes).

In the following list, the middle digit of the course number indicates the field of mathematics. The fields are as follows:

0: | Algebra | 3: | Geometry | 6: | Dynamical Systems and Probability |

1: | Analysis | 4: | Differential Equations | 7: | Numerical Analysis |

2: | Topology | 5: | Mechanics | 8: | Logic |

* For Example: M43 is an Algebra course.0 |

**T403 Modern Algebra for Secondary Teachers (3 cr.)**

This course does not ordinarily carry credit toward the M.A. or Ph.D. in mathematics. It may, however, be taken by M.A.T. students and graduate students in other departments for graduate credit.

**M403-404 Introduction to Modern Algebra I-II (3,3 cr.)**

**S403-404 Honors Course in Modern Algebra I-II (3,3 cr.)**

**M405 Number Theory (3 cr.)**

P: M212 (Bloomington campus only) This course does not ordinarily carry credit toward the M.A. or Ph.D. in mathematics. It may, however, be taken by M.A.T. students and graduate students in other departments for graduate credit.

**M409 Linear Transformations (3 cr.)**

Does not count toward the area requirements for the M.A. and Ph.D. in mathematics.

**M413-414 Introduction to Analysis I-II (3,3 cr.)**

M**415 Elementary Complex Variables with Applications (3 cr.)**

**M420 Metric Space Topology (3 cr.)**

This courses does not ordinarily carry credit toward the M.A. or Ph.D. in mathematics. It may, however, be taken by M.A.T. students and graduate students in other departments for graduate credit.

**M425 Graph Network Theory and Combinatorial Analysis (3 cr.)**

**M435 Introduction to Differential Geometry (3 cr.)**

**M436 Introduction to Geometries (3 cr.)**

Non-Euclidean geometry, axiom systems. Plane projective geometry, Desarguesian planes, perspectivities, coordinates in the real projective plane. The group of projective transformations and subgeometries corresponding to subgroups. Models for geometries. Circular transformations. For AY 2014-15: Fall 2014

**M441-442 Introduction to Partial Differential Equations with Applications I-II (3,3 cr.)**

**M447-448 Mathematical Models and Applications I-II (3,3 cr.)**

This course does not ordinarily carry credit toward the M.A. or Ph.D. in mathematics. It may, however, be taken by M.A.T. students and graduate students in other departments for graduate credit.

**M463 Introduction to Probability Theory I (3 cr.)****M464 Introduction to Probability Theory II ( cr.)****M466 Introduction to Mathematical Statistics (3 cr.)****M471-472 Numerical Analysis I-II (3,3 cr.)**

P: M301 or M303, M311, M343, and knowledge of a computer language such as Fortran, C, or C++. (Students with other programming backgrounds should consult the instructor.)

**M482 Mathematical Logic (3 cr.)****M490 Problem Seminar (3 cr.)****T490 Topics for Elementary Teachers (3 cr.)**

P: T103 or equivalent. Development and study of a body of mathematics specifically designed for experienced elementary teachers. Examples include probability, statistics, geometry, and algebra. Open only to graduate elementary teachers with consent of the instructor. (Does not count toward the area requirements for the M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in mathematics.)

**M500 Problem Solving in Mathematics (3 cr.)****M501 Survey of Algebra (3 cr.)**

P: M403-M404. Groups with operators: Jordan-Holder theorem. Sylow theorems. Rings: localization of rings; Chinese remainder theorem. Modules over principal ideal domains: invariants. Fields: Algebraic closure; separable and inseparable algebraic extensions; Galois theory; finite fields

**M502 Commutative Algebra (3 cr.)**

P: M501. Field theory: transcendental extensions; separable extensions; derivations. Modules: Noetherian and Artinian modules. Primary modules; primary decomposition; Krull intersection theorem. Commutative rings: height and depth of prime ideals. Integral extensions. Notions of algebraic geometry: algebraic sets; Hilbert Nullstellensatz; local rings

**M503 Noncommutative Algebra (3 cr.)**

P: M501. Simple and semisimple modules; density theorem; Wedderburn-Artin theorem. Simple algebras: automorphisms; splitting fields; Brauer groups. Representations of finite groups: characters; induced characters; applications.

**M505-506 Basic Number Theory I-II (3,3 cr.)**

P: M403-M404. Congruence, units modulo n, lattices and abelian groups, quadratic residues, arithmetic functions, diophantine equations, Farey fractions, continued fractions, partition function, the Sieve method, density of subsets of integers, zeta function, the prime number theorem.

**M507-508 Introduction to Lie Algebras and Lie Groups (3,3 cr.)**

P: M403-M404, and M409 or M501. Nilpotent, solvable, and semisimple Lie algebras, exponential map, PBW theorem, Killing form, Cartan subalgebras, root systems, Weyl group, classification and representations of complex semisimple Lie algebras, Schur's lemma, maximal weight modules; correspondence between real Lie algebras and Lie groups, compact Lie groups, complex and real semisimple Lie groups, symmetric spaces.

**M509 Representations of Finite Groups (3 cr.)**

P: M409 or equivalent. Groups, subgroups. Homomorphisms, isomorphisms. Transformation groups. The orthogonal and Euclidean groups O(3) and E(3). Symmetry and discrete subgroups of E(3). Crystal-lographic groups. Group representations. Reducible and irreducible representations. Group characters and character tables. Representations of the symmetric groups. Young tableaux. Symmetry classes of tensors.

**M511-512 Real Variables I-II (3,3 cr.)**

Sets and functions, cardinal and ordinal numbers, set functions, kinds of measures, integration, absolute continuity, convergence theorems, differentiation and integration. Normed linear spaces, function spaces,linear functionals, Banach spaces, Hilbert spaces, Fourier transforms, Schwartz class.

**M513-514 Complex Variables I-II (3,3 cr.)**

Algebra, topology, and geometry of the complex plane; analytic functions; conformal mapping; Riemann surfaces; Cauchy's theorem and formula; convergence theorems; infinite series and products; Riemann mapping theorem.

**M518 Fourier Analysis (3 cr.)**

The course will cover basic facts of Fourier series and orthogonal sets of functions, Fourier transforms, and applications. Different convergence properties of the Fourier, Haar, and Sturm- Liouville expansions will be considered. As time permits, applications to discrete and fast Fourier transforms, and wavelets, will be discussed.

**M521-522 Topology I-II (3,3 cr.)**

Point-set topology including connectedness, compactness, separation properties, products, quotients, metrization, function spaces. Elementary homotopy theory including fundamental group and covering spaces. Introduction to homology theory with applications such as the Brouwer Fixed Point theorem.

**M529 Introduction to Differential Topology (3 cr.)**

P: M303, M413 or equivalent. Derivatives and tangents; Inverse Function Theorem; immersions and submersions; Sard's Theorem. Manifolds; imbedding manifolds. Applications: intersections and degrees (mod 2); Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem. Orientation of manifolds; Euler characteristic; Hopf Degree Theorem.

**M531 Metric Geometry (3 cr.)**

P: 413-414. Introduction to the geometric study of metric spaces. Topics include: length spaces, model geometries, notions of curvature, Hadamard-Cartan theorem, convexity, metric-measure spaces.

**M533-534 Differential Geometry I-II (3,3 cr.)**

Differentiable manifolds, multilinear algebra, and tensor bundles. Vector fields, connections, and general integrability theorems. Riemannian manifolds, curvatures, and topics from the calculus of variations.

**M540 Partial Differential Equations I (3,3 cr.)**

P: M441-M442 or equivalent. Introduction to distributions, Sobolev spaces, and Fourier transforms; elliptic equations, Hilbert space theory, potential theory, maximum principle; parabolic equations and systems, characteristics, representations of solutions, energy methods; applications and examples.

**M541 Partial Differential Equations II (3 cr.)**

P: M441-M442 or equivalent. Introduction to distributions, Sobolev spaces, and Fourier transforms; elliptic equations, Hilbert space theory, potential theory, maximum principle; parabolic equations and systems, characteristics, representations of solutions, energy methods; applications and examples.

**M542 Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations (3 cr.)**

P: M441-M442 or equivalent. Introduction to an array of topics in linear and nonlinear PDE including elements of calculus of variations and applications to nonlinear elliptic PDE, systems of conservation laws, semi-group theory, reaction-diffusion equations, Schauder theory, Navier-Stokes equations, bifurcation theory.

**M544-545 Ordinary Differential Equations I-II (3,3 cr.)**

P: M413-M414 or consent of instructor. Existence, uniqueness, continuous dependence; linear systems, stability theory, Floquet theory; periodic solutions of nonlinear equations; Poincare-Bendixson theory, direct stability methods; almost periodic motions; spectral theory of nonsingular and singular self-adjoint boundary-value problems; two-dimensional autonomous systems; the saddle-point property; linear systems with isolated singularities.

**M546 Control Theory (3 cr.)**

Examples of control problems; optimal control of deterministic systems: linear and nonlinear. The maximal principle: stochastic control problems.

**M548 Mathematical Methods for Biology (3 cr.)**

P: M414, M463. Deterministic growth models. Birth-death processes and stochastic models for growth. Mathematical theories for the spread of epidemics. Quantitative population genetics.

**M551 Markets and Multi-Period Asset Pricing (3 cr.)**

P: M463, M345, or equivalent. The concepts of arbitrage and risk-neutral pricing are introduced within the context of dynamic models of stock prices, bond prices, and currency exchange rates. Specific models include multi-period binomial models, Markov processes, Brownian motion, and martingales.

**M553 Cryptography (3 cr.)**

P: M301 or M303. ***Does not count toward the 500-level requirements. Covers encryption and decryption in secure codes. Topics include: cryptosystems and their cryptanalysis, Data Encryption Standard, differential cryptanalysis, Euclidean algorithm, Chinese remainder theorem, RSA cryptosystem, primality testing, factoring algorithms, ElGamal cryptosystem, discrete log problem, other public key cryptosystems, signature schemes, hash functions, key distribution, and key agreement. Credit not given for both M553 and M453.

**M555 Quantum Computing I (3 cr.)**

***Does not count toward the 500-level requirements. Covers the interdisciplinary field of quantum information science for graduate students in computer science, physics, mathematics, philosophy, and chemistry. Quantum information science is the study of storing, processing, and communicating information using quantum systems.

**M556 Quantum Computing II (3 cr.)**

***Does not count toward the 500-level requirements. Covers the interdisciplinary field of quantum information science for graduate students in computer science, physics, mathematics, philosophy, and chemistry. Quantum information science is the study of storing, processing, and communicating information using quantum systems.

**M557-558 Introduction to Dynamical Systems and Ergodic Theory (3 cr.)**

Iteration of mappings, flows. Topological, smooth, measure-theoretic, and symbolic dynamics. Recurrence and chaos. Ergodic theory, spectral theory, notions of entropy. Low-dimensional phenomena; hyperbolicity; structural stability and rigidity. Application to number theory, data storage, Internet search and Ramsey theory.

**M560 Applied Stochastic Processes (3 cr.)**

P: M343, M463, or consent of instructor. Simple random walk as approximation of Brownian motion. Discrete time Markov chains. Continuous time Markov chains; Poisson, compound Poisson, and birth-and-death chains; Kolmogorov's backward and forward equations; steady state. Diffusions as limits of birth-and-death processes. Examples drawn from diverse fields of application.

**M563-564 Theory of Probability I-II (3,3 cr.)**

P: M463, M512; or consent of instructor. Basic concepts of measure theory and integration, axiomatic foundations of probability theory, distribution functions and characteristic functions, infinitely divisible laws and the central limit problem, modes of convergence of sequences of random variables, ergodic theorems, Markov chains, and stochastic processes.

**M566-567 Mathematical Statistics I-II (3,3 cr.)**

P: M466, M512; or consent of instructor. Modern statistical inference, including such topics as sufficient statistics with applications to similar tests and point estimates, unbiased and invariant tests, lower bounds for mean square errors of point estimates, interval estimation, linear hypothesis, analysis of variance, sequential analysis, decision functions, and nonparametric inference.

**M568 Time Series Analysis (3 cr.)**

P: M466 or consent of instructor. Trends, linear filters, smoothing. Stationary processes, autocorrelations, partial autocorrelations. Autoregressive, moving average, and ARMA processes. Fitting of ARMA and related models. Forecasting. Seasonal time series. Spectral density of stationary processes. Periodograms and estimation of spectral density. Bivariate time series, cross-correlations, cross-spectrum. Other topics as time permits. Equivalent to STAT S650.

**M571-572 Analysis of Numerical Methods I-II (3,3 cr.)**

P: M441-M442 and M413-M414. Solution of systems of linear equations, elimination and iterative methods, error analyses, eigenvalue problems; numerical methods for integral equations and ordinary differential equations; finite difference, finite element, and Galerkin methods for partial differential equations; stability of methods.

**M583 Set Theory (3 cr.)**

P: M482 or M511 or M521. Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms for set theory, well-foundedness and well-orderings, induction and recursion, ordinals and cardinals, axiom of choice, cardinal exponentiation, generalized continuum hypothesis, infinite combinatorics and large cardinals. Martin's axiom, applications to analysis and topology.

**M584 Recursion Theory (3 cr.)**

P: One graduate mathematics course or consent of instructor. Classes of recursive functions, models of computation, Church's thesis, normal forms, recursion theorem, recursively enumerable sets, reducibilities, undecidability results such as Church's Theorem, degrees of unsolvability, and complexity classes.

**M590 Seminar (3 cr.)****M595-596 Seminar in the Teaching of College Mathematics I-II (1,1 cr.)**

Methods of teaching undergraduate college mathematics. Does not count toward meeting any of the 500-level requirements toward an M.A. or Ph.D.

**M599 Colloquium (1 cr.)**

Attendance at Department of Mathematics colloquia required. May be repeated. May not be used in fulfillment of the 36 credit hours of 500-, 600-, or 700-level course work required for the Ph.D. Also not applicable to 30 credit hours for master's degree.

**M601 Algebraic Number Theory I-II (3,3 cr.)**

P: M501-M502. Valuations, fields of algebraic functions, cohomology of groups, local and global class field theory.

**M607-608 Group Representations I-II (3,3 cr.)**

P: consent of instructor. Review of abstract group theory. Representation theory of finite and infinite compact groups. Detailed study of selected classical groups. Lie groups, covering groups, Lie algebras, invariant measure and induced representations. May be taught in alternate years by members of the Departments of Mathematics and Physics; see Physics P607.

**M611-612 Functional Analysis I-II (3,3 cr.)**

Fundamentals of the theory of vector spaces; Banach spaces; Hilbert space. Linear functionals and operators in such spaces, spectral resolution of operators. Functional equations: applications to fields of analysis, such as integration and measure, integral equations, ordinary and partial differential equations, ergodic theory. Nonlinear problems. Schauder-Leray fixed-point theorem and its applications to fundamental existence theorems of analysis.

**M621-622 Algebraic Topology I-II (3,3 cr.)**

P: M522. Basic concepts of homological algebra, universal coefficient theorems for homology and cohomology, Künneth formula, duality in manifolds. Homotopy theory including Hurewicz and Whitehead theorems, classifying spaces, Postnikov systems, spectral sequences, homotopy groups of spheres. Offered every other year, alternating with M623-M624.

**M623-624 Geometric Topology I-II (3,3 cr.)**

P: M522. Topics in geometric topology chosen from K-theory, simple homotopy theory, topology of manifolds, fiber bundles, knot theory, and related areas. May be taken more than once. Offered every other year, alternating with M621-M622.

**M630 Algebraic Geometry (3 cr.)**

A study in the plane, based on homogeneous point and line coordinates; a study of algebraic curves and envelopes, including such topics as invariants, singularities, reducibility, genus, polar properties, Pascal and Brainchon theorems, and Jacobian, Hessian, and Plücker formulas.

**M633-634 Algebraic Varieties I-II (3,3 cr.)**

Geometric and cohomological properties of algebraic varieties and schemes.

**M635-636 Relativity I-II (3,3 cr.)**

Mathematical foundations of the theory of relativity. Lorentz groups, Michelson-Morley experiment, aberration of stars, Fizeau experiment, kinematic effects, relativistic second law of Newton, relativistic kinetic energy, Maxwell equations, ponderomotive equations. Curvature tensor and its algebraic identities, Bianchi's identity, gravitation and geodesics. Schwarzschild solution, relativistic orbits, deflection of light.

**M637 Theory of Gravitation (3 cr.)**

Introduction to the general theory of relativity, stress-energy tensor, parallel transport, geodesics, Einstein's equation, differential geometry, manifolds, general covariance, bending of light, perihelion advance. Modern cosmology: Robertson-Walker metric, equations of state, Friedmann equations, Hubble's law, redshift, cosmological constant, inflation, quintessence, cosmic microwave background, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, structure formation. May be taught in alternate years by members of the Department of Physics; see PHYS P637.

**A641 Eliptic Differential Equations (3 cr.)**

P: M511, M513, M540, or consent of instructor. Green's identity, fundamental solutions, function theoretic methods, partition of unity, weak and strong derivatives, Sobolev inequalities, embedding theorems, Garding's inequality, Dirichlet problem, existence theory, regularity in the interior, regularity on the boundary, and selected topics.

**A642 Evolution Equations (3 cr.)**

P: M511, M513, M540, or consent of instructor. Hyperbolic equations and systems, parabolic equations, Cauchy problems in higher dimension, method of descent, fundamental solutions and their construction, strongly continuous semigroups, analytic semigroups, uniqueness theorems in Hilbert space, fractional powers of operators, analyticity of solutions, and selected topics.

**A643 Integral Equations (3 cr.)**

P: M511, M513, M540, or consent of instructor. Covers the Volterra-Fredholm theory of integral equations and the abstract Riesz theory of compact operators. Other topics include ideals of compact operators, Fredholm operators, convolution equations and their relationship to Toeplitz operators, Wiener-Hopf factorization.

**M647 Mathematical Physics (3 cr.)**

P: M541 or consent of instructor. Applications of the theory of normed linear spaces, distributions, unbounded operators in Hilbert space, and related topics to problems in mathematical physics. May be taught in alternate years by members of the Department of Physics; see Physics P647.

**M655 Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (3 cr.)**

P: consent of instructor. Philosophical and mathematical analysis of the concepts: quantum observable, compatibility, quantum state, superposition principle, symmetry. Axiomatic construction of conventional quantum mechanics. May be taught in alternate years by members of the Department of Physics; see Physics P655.

**M656-657 Kinetic Theory and Statistical Mechanics I-II (3,3 cr.)**

Introduction to the classical theory and modern developments. Historical development of kinetic-statistical theories; rigorous equilibrium statistics; kinetic gas dynamics according to Boltzmann equation; kinetic theories of transport processes in liquids. May be taught in alternate years by members of the Departments of Mathematics and Physics; see Physics P656-P657.

**M658-659 Continuum Mechanics I-II (3 cr.)**

P: consent of instructor. Two-semester course dealing with mathematical foundations of continuum mechanics; content varies yearly; topics selected from elasticity, plasticity, or fluid mechanics and related areas.

**M663 Weak Convergence of Probability Measures and Applications (3 cr.)**

P: M512, M564. Weak convergence of probability measures on metric spaces. Prohorov's theorem and tightness. Brownian motion. Donsker's invariance principle. Weak convergence on D [0,1]. Convergence of empirical distributions. Functional central limit theorems under dependence.

**M664 Large Sample Theory of Statistics (3 cr.)**

P: M563, M566. Asymptotic distributions of sample moments, sample quantiles, and U-statistics; methods of estimation: maximum likelihood estimates, method of moments, L-estimators, Bayes estimators; asymptotic efficiency; likelihood ratio tests, chi-square tests, asymptotic relative efficiencies of tests; weak convergence of the empirical distribution function to a Brownian bridge and application; selection of topics from the following: large deviations, second-order asymptotic efficiency, bootstrap rank tests.

**M671-672 Numerical Treatment of Differential and Integral Equations I-II (3,3 cr.)**

P: M540 or consent of instructor. Finite difference methods of ordinary and partial differential equations; relaxation methods; discrete kernel functions; methods of Ritz, Galerkin, and Trefftz approximate methods for integral equations.

**M680 Logic and Decidability (3 cr.)**

P: M584 and M404; or consent of instructor. Effective syntax and semantics of propositional and first-order logics, theory of decidability and some decidable theories, theory of undecidability and implicit definability, Gödel's theorems on incompleteness and the unprovability of consistency.

**M682 Model Theory (3 cr.)**

P: M583, M680, and M502; or consent of instructor. Elementary equivalence, completeness and model-completeness, interpolation, preservation and characterization theorems, elementary classes, types, saturated structures, introduction to categoricity and stability.

**M701-702 Selected Topics in Algebra I-II (3,3 cr.)****M711-712 Selected Topics in Analysis I-II (3,3 cr.)****M721-722 Selected Topics in Topology I-II (3,3 cr.)****M731-732 Selected Topics in Differential Geometry I-II (3,3 cr.)****M733-734 Selected Topics in Algebraic Geometry I-II (3,3 cr.)****M741-742 Selected Topics in Applied Mathematics I-II (3,3 cr.)****M743-744 Selected Topics in Mathematical Physics I-II (3,3 cr.)**

Content varies from year to year. May be taught in alternate years by members of the Department of Physics; see Physics P743.

**M751,752 Selected Topics in Mechanics I-II (3,3 cr.)****M761-762 Selected Topics in Probability (3,3 cr.)****M771-772 Selected Topics in Numerical Analysis I-II (3,3 cr.)****M781-782 Selected Topics in Mathematical Logic (3,3 cr.)****M800 Mathematical Reading and Research (arr cr.)**

Intended primarily for graduate students who have passed the qualifying examination.